## Preparation

**Situation**

**Organization. **The design and construction of a tunnel involves designers from seven different disciplines. In a tunnel engineering project, they produce seven partial designs of a tunnel, one for each discipline, together forming an integral design. When they find conflicts between the partial designs, they resolve them and modify their partial designs.

**Environmental factors. **A tunnel engineering project is a tender project. In the preparation phase, the availability of information needed for design is limited. During execution, time and money are limited.

**Issues. **The more conflicts between partial designs, the more time and effort it takes to resolve them.

**Ambition**

**Objective. **Minimise the number of conflicts between partial designs.

**Benefits. **Less design effort and lower design costs.

**Analysis.** Worth pursuing.

## Assessment of tunnel design

**Identify**

Required capabilities to minimise the number of conflicts between partial designs:

- Deliver design service:
- Develop an integral design [implicit].
- Develop conflict-free partial designs [implicit].

**Compare**

Ranking of required capabilities:

- Reputation:
- Develop an integral design.
- Develop conflict-free partial designs.

**Appraise**

Maturity of required capabilities:

- Absent:
- Develop conflict-free partial designs.

- Organizational:
- Develop an integral design.

## Advice for tunnel design

**Route**

Directions for competency development of required capabilities:

- Apply focus:
- Develop conflict-free partial designs.

**Unite**

Formation of unique capabilities out of required capabilities:

- Develop a conflict-free part of an integral design:
- Develop an integral design.
- Develop conflict-free partial designs.

**Secure**

Organizational design:

**System.**Define a formal meta-model of integral designs.- Define an ontology of integral designs.
- Transform the ontology of integral designs into a formal meta-model.

**System.**Create a digital repository of integral designs.- Create a digital repository.
- Implement the

**System.**Create standard operating procedures for the following activities:- Develop a conflict-free part of an integral design.
- Manage the formal meta-model of integral designs.
- Manage the digital repository of integral designs.

**Skills.**Train all designers in the following activities:- Develop a conflict-free part of an integral design.
- Manage the formal meta-model of integral designs.
- Manage the digital repository of integral designs.